There is a world of difference between the symptom of a problem and a core problem and sometimes it's a challenge to know which is which. For example, a staff member may be experienced by colleagues as constantly obstructive. They may think the person is deliberately being difficult to annoy their colleagues or stop organisational change occurring. Yet, the obstructiveness may be symptomatic of different problems altogether, such as: the person may not have all the relevant information on some issues in order to make an informed decision; they may have been excluded from some information, so they don't know about changes that may be planned; they may have been given clear instructions from one manager to do something yet that instruction isn't known by other managers. At the heart of most symptoms of organisational confusion and misunderstandings amongst staff, the following core issues are likely to be found: poor communications, erratic use of required processes, unclear roles and boundaries between roles, a high tolerance level to poor performance, staff in roles they may not have all the skill sets for and systematic management failure – that is, known problems have been left to fester, for years.